POWER SITUATION IN INDIA
Power is the life line for the industrial growth of any country.
In 1947, the installed generating capacity in India was a meager 1.362GW. Since then, the power sector in India has made rapid strides (especially during the last six decades) in the field of generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electricity which grew manifold to 228.722GW by the end of September 2013.
With the growing industrialization, the global electricity consumption is expected to increase by more than two-thirds by 2035 and it is estimated that India alone will add between 600 GW to 1200 GW of additional new power generation capacity by 2050.
Power Transmission And Distribution:
Electric power is normally generated at 11-25kV in a power station and to transmit it over long distances, it is then stepped-up to 400kV, 220kV or 132kV as necessary. Power is carried through a transmission network of high voltage lines which run into hundreds of kilometres and deliver the power into a common power pool called the grid which is connected to load centres (cities) through a sub-transmission network of 33kV or 66kV lines. These lines terminate into a substation, where the voltage is stepped-down to 11kV by distribution companies for distribution to load points (like industrial, commercial or residential establishments) through a distribution network of lines at 11kV.
The power network, which generally concerns the common man, is the distribution network of 11kV (and lower voltage) lines. Each 11kV line carry power close to the load points (localities, industries, commercial establishments, etc.).
For small industrial/ commercial and residential consumers, distribution companies further reduces the voltage from 11kV to 415V to provide last-mile connection to individual customers, either at 240V (as single-phase supply) or at 415V (as three-phase supply).
Industrial and commercial consumers which form the growth engines of the country, get supply at 11 kV from distribution companies. The consumers are required to install a substation which includes a transformer (which reduces the voltage from 11kV to 415V) and associsated panels (like HT/LT panels, Power Factor Correction panels, etc) to energize and control these loads required for the machines installed by them.